Thursday, August 22, 2019
Televising the Holocaust in America during the 1950s Essay Shylock is a monster of cruelty, miser, greedy, suspicious ,cunning , bloodthirsty ,revengeful, mean ,a bad father and a bad master. But it is the circumstances that made him like this. Shylock is a tragic figure, trapped by prejudice and driven to revenge by the treatment he receives He is not cruel by nature. He is human in inner-self as the Christians are. He is therefore the most injured man, insulted, abused and disgraced by the Christians and even by his own daughter, His cruelty is made by centuries of insult and outrage which the Christians inflicted upon the Jews race. Shylock became hard and savage by long and cruel oppression. He suffers immensely. ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s humiliation and sufferings can only be measured by someone who has experienced the alienation of a gross minority. From the very beginning of the play Shylock is a lonely man. His wife Leah ,whom he loves dearly ,is dead. His daughter Jessica is not much of a help, and infect adds to his loneliness. She betrays her father by robbing him of all his money after he had bestowed upon her the trust of his house. She not only takes the money but also marries Lorenzo, a Christian boy by changing her religion. This must have been particularly heart-breaking for the proud Jew. She later exchanges the turquoise ring of her mother for a monkey. Shylock is hated by Antonio because of his anti-Semitism. Antonio in particular spits upon him and calls him a cut-throat dog. So it is but natural that such a man begins to hate those persons who hate him. His hatred of Antonio is religious, patriotic ,personal and professional. Lorenzo elopes with his daughter that makes him more revengeful . He bears insults with patience. He says Ã¢â¬Å"sufferance is the badge of tribe. Ã¢â¬ In his impassioned speech in Act III ,Scene I ,beginning with Ã¢â¬Å"To bait fish withalÃ¢â¬ he rises to the magnitude of a tragic hero, Ã¢â¬Å" I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes ,hath not a Jew Hands ,organs, dimensions, senses , fed with the same food ,hurt with the same weaponÃ¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ It is a noble protest against inhumanity of treatment to which the Jews as a race have been subjected through the ages. Shylock, the Jew has hatred against the Christians in general but Antonio, the merchant of Venice in particular . He has strong reasons for it. The reason of his such revengeful attitude towords the Christians and in particular towards Antonio is ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s abhorrence towards him and his race which is the false belief of the ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s that the Jews murdered Jesus Christ and therefore in league with the devil and this the Jews were actively working to subvert the spread of Christianity . this belief was driven by the early church. In Merchant of Venice Antonio abhorred Shylock because of this inherited belief. AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of Shylock is most unfriendly and insulting. He hates the Jews in general and Shylock in particular. He has publicly condemned Shylock. He has been spitting on him at the Rialto in the past and abusing him. He has called him a mis-believer and a cut-throat dog . He has often spat upon his Jewish gabardine. He has been heaping disgrace and insult upon him. Even when he seeks for loan from Shylock from his friend Bassanio Shylock recites the various insults and injuries he has received at AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s hands Antonio haughtily replied Ã¢â¬Å" I am as like to call thee so again. To spit on thee,to spurn thee too. Ã¢â¬ Naturally how can Shylock forget this humiliation he has received at the hands of Antonio. He is constantly abused by others as well. Gratiano calls him Ã¢â¬Å"inexorable dogÃ¢â¬ in the court infront of the Duke,and goes unpunished for slander. Even Solanio and Salerio calls him a villain and a dog. And they all hate him because he is a Jew. He survives in such a hostile environment like a man absorbing their insults ,yet never losing heart ,accumulating wealth in a fair manner no matter how much the Christians hate him for. Shylock is a fanatic Jew. He is a representative of the Jewish tribe . his vengeance on Antonio springs from the ancient and cruel hate which he as a Jew bears towards the Christians. Shylock is the champion of the persecuted Jewish race. He can not forget the centuries of insult and outrage heaped upon the the Jewish race by the Christians. ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s grudge is that Antonio abuses his sacred race. he feels that the Jews have been denied human rights by the Christians. He fells pained that Antonio gives loans to people without charging any interest and thus brings down the rate of interest in Venice. Shylocks profession as a Jew money-lender suffers by AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s generosity. Moreover ther is still another motive behind ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s revenge against Antonio. His daughter Jessica ,runs away with a Christian boy,Lorenzo,who is a friend of Antonio. The one single trait that puts him in the category of a villain is his all-consuming passion for revenge. He is prepared to kill for it. There is something horribly monstrous when he sharpens his knife to actually carry out his barbaric job of extracting a pound of flesh from AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Critics have explained his revenge to his hostile surroundings,his constant humiliation ,the persecution of Jewish tribe and the betrayal of his daughter. Yet,all these put together can not explain the hideousness and cruelty involved in the act ,that he is bent to carry out. However,the punishment that is meted out to him at the end of the trial scene is as barbaric as his feeling for revenge. After the trial scene he is deprived of all his wealth and ahat is worse ,is ordered to convert into Christianity,if he is to save his life. According to the modern standards,the forcible conversion was a sin,for we regard the question of salvation as a personal issue on which no extraneous authority has a right to interfere. So ,from this point of view the Christian court of Venice did injustice to this man. To have punished the Jew by confiscating his property would have been sufficient to meet the end of justice but to go out of its way to force him to change the creed of his forefathers would be an act of inhumanity which can not be defended according to the sense of justice. Throughout the play ,ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s persecution is massive and heart-rendering. We can not but feel sympathy for the man at the end of the play. But the hideous design that Shylock makes in order to take his revenge upon Antonio is not supportable at all. _____________________________________ Reference: 1)http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Merchant_of_venice 2)http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Shylock 3)http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/542457/Shylock 4)http://www. articlemyriad. com/character_analysis_shylock_merchant_venice_shakespeare. htm.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Cultural Features of Poland To begin with, Poland has a lot of different interesting facts like physical features, agriculture, and culture features. Poland is one of the ninth largest countries in Europe by the land area. The Polish American relations were officially established in 1919. Since 1989, Polish and American relations have been strong and Poland is one of the most stable European allies of the United States being part of both NATOÃ and the European Union. Poland is famous for being the home of the scientists. Poland has many interesting facts about itsÃ physical features. The official name is Polands Rzeczpospolita Polska or as in America it is called Poland. This country is located on the continent of Europe and is surrounded by Germany on the west. The Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, while Lithuania and the Russian province of Kaliningrad Oblast to the northeast of Poland. Poland is about 120,726 square miles in size, that is about 3 times smaller than the United States. Poland has many agricultural techniques as well as a great economy. Poland has the largest economy in Eastern Europe, with GDP totaling $420 billion in 2007. The major industries in Poland are machine building, iron and steel, coal mining , chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, and textiles. Poland is one of the largest manufacturing industries in chemicals manufacture. Poland also has a very strong presence in making televisions. Most of Poland is country grounded in forestry and agriculture.Ã A lot of Polands land area is used for farming barley, oats, rye, and wheat. In farms they raise dairy cattle, pigs, poultry, and cultivate fruit. They imported goods for manufacturing and industrial retooling, such as machinery and equipment, fuels, minerals, chemicals, and metals. Some goods they exported wereÃ furniture, foods, motor boats, light planes, hardwood products, casual clothing, shoes and cosmetics. The climate in Poland is warm in the summer and is fr eezing cold in the winters. Poland has many land forms such as the, sand dunes, deserts, mountains, hilly plains, lowlands, and many bodies of water. Lastly, Poland has many natural resources made from minerals are brown coal,copper, zinc, sulphur, lead, and silver. Poland has many Cultural features such as languages, holidays, education, food, and recreation. One of the language the Polish people speak is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland. Some of the Poland holidays are January 1st New Years Day, on May 1st Labor Day, on May 3rd its Constitution Day, on August 15th it is Assumption Day and lastly on November 11th it is Independence Day. The education in Poland is compulsory and starts at the age of six or seven, per the Reforms of 1999, from the 0 class kindergarten (Polish przedszkole, literally pre-school) and at the age of seven, for the 1st grade of primary school (Polish szkoÃâ¦Ã¢â¬Å¡a podstawowa). Compulsory education lasts nine years. An important diet they have in Poland is meat. Pork is the most popular meat, and the most commonly eaten meat dish is a fried, breaded pork cutlet served with thick sauce. Beef, ham, and sausage are also eaten regularly. The meat stew called bigos is often called the national dish of Po land. Poland and the USA are two different worlds entirely. The USA is sunny and positive and casual. Poland is cold, dark and romantic. There is an ancient feel in Poland, something almost mystical. Even Though Poland has many interesting facts, it ranksÃ the ninth country in Europe.Ã Ever since 1989 the Americans and the Polish are pretty strong allies they are both part of both NATO and the European Union. We learned that Poland was invaded by the Germans in World War II. Also 90% of Poles have completed at least secondary education. An interesting fact we found is that Poles eat pizza with ketchup and watching Home Alone is a Christmas tradition.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
An overview of IKEA 1. Introduction Undoubtedly, in the modern, technological and developed world, IT defined as the storage, protection, conversion, transmission and retrieval of data, has a significant role in various important activities and contributes in industrial development. The usage of Information technology in businesses is a useful tool in managing and administering their regular operations and activities. An example of wise and effective application of IT into business is IKEA. IKEA is the worlds largest home furnishing retailer with stores located worldwide. Every year IKEA stores welcome 565 million visitors, while more than 450 million visits have been recently recorded to its website. The followed low-price strategy coupled with a wide range of functional, well designed products that satisfy every lifestyle and life stage of its customers, who come from every age group and type of household, is responsible for its rapid growth and its enormous success. 2. The company 2.1 Company overview IKEA began to design its own furniture in 1955 and opened its first store in Sweden in 1958. In 1959 it began to produce self-assembly furniture to lower freight chargers and other costs to retail customers, an approach that continues until today. IKEA now has over 200 stores in 30 countries. Each store has about 9500 items for sale. Its 2008 sales were over Ã¢â ¬20 billion. The company, over time has become a leader in its niche by the choices made in that process. Nevertheless, the IKEA uniqueness presents a formidable barrier to competitors- one that supply chain planners can look in creating their own business models. The Ã¢â¬Å"IKEA conceptÃ¢â¬ guides the company. This concept is to make Ã¢â¬Å"well-designed, functional home furnishing productsÃ¢â¬ at low, affordable prices. In fact, the design process for a new product begins by setting the retail price. It then proceeds to design production processes that meet the cost objective. Finally, the product is designed to IKEAs style standard. This standard omits cost-adding frills that add no value in terms of functionality. Each IKEA store carries -on average a selection of 12000 products, while the core rage is the same worldwide and independently of the store size. Managing over 200 stores spread in 30 countries worldwide and having 1,600 suppliers in 55 countries, requires apart from outstanding support staff, exceptional logistics and the best information systems. IKEA, in order to maintain an integral supply chain at its most efficient level, it must incorporate the right people, the high technology and the best information systems. 2.2 IKEAs timeline 2.2 SWOT Analysis 2.3 IKEAs challenges and goals The company requires the best tools available to ensure a faultless transition and has to be able to solve any problems as quickly as possible, particularly when it is the worlds leading home furnishing retailer. The rapid development of technology creates new standards and increases demands in planning process. The company has to be modernized and able to adjust quickly to changes, place additional pressure on the whole operation of the supply network and be innovator in using the most up to date information systems. Being sustainable should remain a central part of IKEAs image. Failure to deal with new challenges and problems that arise due to market forces and to various economic factors will cost IKEA in every area of its business. Hence, to ensure that this would not happen, IKEA needs to invest in IT, helping the company to adapt quickly and easily to the developing situations (agility) and face any problems occurred. Investing in IT can achieve: Increased visibility in the sales patterns of IKEA products. Improved forecast accuracy. Improved planner experience and productivity through exception-based management. Enabled the consolidation of supplier base with a focus on low-cost countries. Increased overall supply chain visibility and efficiency. 3. IKEA and IT 3.1 IKEAs major IT systems IKEA has many company-wide IT systems. These IT systems are facilities which aim to process data and provide meaningful information to users but each of them varies in function. IT systems are able to track data and information to all resources external or internal making possible design, production processes, distribution, retailing take place in the most productive and effective way. 3.2.1 IKEAs intranet: bringing people and information together In 1997 IKEA launched its intranet, IKEA inside.At its first steps it included useful information for co-workers and had a basic although unclear structure: content was static, interactivity inexistent but it improved through trying and learning. Through time the need to share the intranets content not just with IKEAs co-workers in the service office but also with the people working in IKEAs stores emerged. What was considered critical to success was the way the site would be set up in order to match the retail personnels needs and skills. In the following years IKEA replaced its traditional paperwork system with digital equivalents which led to great accomplishments, decreasing costs and time needed to complete different kind of tasks within company. Intranet offers a wide range of applications such as online surveys, details about products, company news, customer feedback, inventory and supply management tools and material concerning marketing. Hence, is considered by employees as their second hand that promptly provides them, whenever and wherever needed, with the necessary tools and information to perform their duties. Innovation and effort for improvement through intranet in IKEA never stops. Recently in May 2008 the Swedish company launched the ico-worker which houses information about employees and it is used in general as a digital human resource centre. Applications vary from managing retirement plans to requesting time-off and accessing online pay checks. This latest addition to intranet has saved hundreds of thousands of dollars and also many hours of work for IKEAs HR department. Through intranet IKEA has managed to decrease costs in departments other than HR. The intranet consultant, Toby Ward, mentions that IKEA US has managed through intranet to decrease costs more than $500,000 per year. More precisely, it has managed to decrease paper costs by $192,000, streamlining processes and self-serve process by $4,590, modernizing communication technologies -video conference to webex- by $90,000 and finally self-service HR by $219,000. The intranet team has accomplished not only to decrease costs but also increase sales by empowering employees and sales teams. It has succeeded this goal through delivering a highly focused on sales content. Employee discussion boards and provision of information concerning sales number and metrics are only some of the tools offered on a daily basis to employees working at IKEA. IKEA inside has managed to bring people and information together in the most productive way. Other companies use intranets as well without being merely as successful. What is the element that has ensured IKEAs intranet long term success? Is it a very sophisticated technology? The answer is that the key element to success has been the provision and ability to coincide the technology based system to the people it is meant to support. Technology was definitely not the sole focus when developing IKEAs information systems and especially intranet: The emphasis has been placed more to people rather than data or technology. Specifically, the IT was designed to enhance the connection between employees and data in respect to IKEAs people-centered culture. Beth Gleba, Internal Information Manager for IKEA explains that We are a people-based company. Face-to-face time is very important. Weve built our intranet to complement this. We dont want people to feel technology replaces but enhances our c onnection to one another. Working with our culture, not against it, has been key. The Intranet as part of IKEAs information landscape has been able to decentralize work, impact the bottom line, improve IKEAs financial factors and all that because people building the intranet right from the start had in mind that it should be more than its bits and bytes, it should be able to respond to peoples needs respecting their work culture. 3.2.2 IKEAs product information assistance (pia) One of IKEA Ã¢â¬Ës key IT systems is PIA , Product information assistance which was introduced in 1998. This system has as a core objective to help administrate product information and is therefore useful for product development projects. PIA is provided with information by project teams and product developers. Input data include several kind of information about the product: sale price, expected cost, product composition, goals. PIA is also fed with information by other specialists at IKEA who provide details about suppliers, materials etc. Product developers are the main users of output information but all of IKEAs employees have also access to the system: they can either browse information or create documents such as internal reports. When we refer to product development at IKEA we should have in mind a fully vertical integrated system: A system that provides resources and coordinates the different stages of design, manufacturing, logistics, warehousing and finally exhibition in retail stores. So, behind each product there is a vast system of internal and external resources that interact one with another. Through PIA, IKEA has been able to perform miracles: It has been able to create products -like Lack, a simple table- that had a constant price for decades although the price of input materials has increased substantially. This accomplishment was possible with the use of PIA which has combined resources in different ways to reach the same result. PIA is responsible for collection, process and diffusion of the large amounts of information needed for each product, Lack as well, to both external and internal units. Of course PIA is not yet a perfect system. Certain limitations emerge from its direct and indirect connections its passive and active users but PIA is a system which constantly evolves with changing features and patterns getting better each time. 3.2.3 Supply Chain Management IKEAs supply chain follows the Ã¢â¬Å"philosophyÃ¢â¬ of make to stock. This means that products are not built upon customer request and thats why there is a large dependency on demand forecasts. In the past, there was a great degree of freedom concerning stock planning and replenishment at a regional level. Through time this has led to stock outs, overstocks and obsolete inventories. But this was not the only problem faced by IKEAs previous supply chain. The fragmented and unreliable information used -coming from manual work- created lack of trust between the different parts participating in the supply chain. Moreover problems in data maintenance were spotted as well as lack of the proper tools to handle deviations in demand. In order to address these problems IKEA decided to attain better control of the supply chain and improve performance. The new concept is being currently implemented and an important part of it is the IT technology being used. IKEA has reformed to a centralized planning organization with integrated planning processes and high data quality. APS (advanced planning systems) are tools used to help make decisions in this complex environment of global networks. The main idea is that one central planning engine includes all decisions concerning the supply chain: stock replenishment, sourcing, production and distribution decisions. The following figure shows the new planning concept where all forecasting activities are centralized and stock levels are under control through out the whole supply chain In the new global planning process corporate sales planning takes place first, its results are used as input in to the global need planning process. The next step is the capacity planning process and finally the planning of the distribution supply chain takes place. Most of the planning processes are supported by APS and the forecasting processes have been supported by JDA. The contribution of these two systems to the improvements described concerning the integration of the supply chain has been amazing. With the use of APS the number of forecasts has reduced from 120 to around 30 the average forecast accuracy has increased from 60% to 80% Several roles in IKEAÃ¢â¬Ës planning organization have been supported with up to date information concerning stock levels, replenishment needs and safety stock calculations. APS has improved supply chain planning in the following ways: It has helped reduce stock levels and improve services It has provided management of large amounts of data and run of Ã¢â¬Å" what ifÃ¢â¬ scenarios to ensure the best decisions will be taken It has present results in an understandable way It has contributed to the improvement of the degree of automation planning and therefore has save time for decision making It has helped to balance the supply chain through coordination It has offered tools to detect and deal with planning problems in early stages It has improved the data quality In the year of 2001 IKEA has launched a new cooperation with JDA which in its turn provided a new solution to apply JDA Demand solutions on all company products in the international market. The primary objectives pursued by the company were to design a methodology to plan sales, to come up with real sales forecasts in order to determine capacity for stocks as well as plan for suppliers and estimate the transpiration costs. Due to this global supply chain planning system, today IKEA has the opportunity to manage its sales, capacity, inventory and distribution in an efficient and visible manner. This gives the company to better consider its sales prospects and improve the business operations as a whole. The reports state on the companys planning departments testifying about the efficiency of this method as it was vividly reflected in more accurate forecasts. 4. Future Challenges Over the next five years IKEAs strategy has been to keep expanding in the international markets which makes them to face new challenges, particularly with the distribution system. Such enormous growth urges the company constantly review its distribution structure and adapt it to the required needs. One of the primary moves the company should do is to reallocate its distribution structure in a way that the low-flow range will be stocked centrally for big regions and high-flows near to the appropriate market. Meantime, the company should work on increasing direct deliveries. The other upcoming challenge that the company is coping with is about organizing remote shopping over phone and Internet. Even though IKEA customers still prefer to visit the stores as it is a whole experience for them, however internet shopping and phone orders is on demand and in order to meet this expectations the company should find new and flexible distribution solutions. 5. Evaluation of the impact of IT in IKEAs success 5.1 ITs impact on IKEAs success As the globalization is increasing in the retail industry in terms of sales and supplies the significance of IT is rising substantially and is playing a vital role in managing the complexity of retail operations. Major retail industry players are willing to allocate larger amounts for IT costs as they realize the importance of its application in the business as it generates numerous advantages over the competitors and delivers value. IT has played a great role in IKEAs success and this is because the company was not merely integrating these systems into its operations but also combining them with its strategic goals. At the same time, IKEA was able to maintain successful in the market as it was evolving the IT systems in the company as the business was growing starting from simple and base systems to finding complex solutions to complex problems. 5.2 Competitive advantages from ITs implementation In this dynamically moving business environment it is a challenge for companies and organizations to sustain their competitiveness. Today by integrating IT systems in its everyday operations, IKEA has empowered its grounds in the market as these systems provide best information that the company needs to do its tasks more effectively. It has quick access to information and it minimizes the errors in business transactions. At the same time it serves as a powerful competitive tool for IKEA to interact with its customers, supplier and employees in an effective manner that contributes to a mutual benefit by making its stakeholders loyal to the company. Today, due to its successful Supply Chain Management system IKEA is able to achieve cost benefits and offer reduced prices to its customers. At the same time the implementation of Supply Chain Management system in its global planning has given IKEA the opportunity to reduce its stock level and increase the service level. This in its turn contributes to the overall satisfaction of the company clients and supplier. Contrary to its competitors, IKEA is able to detect and cope with problems related to the supply chain at an early stage which helps the company to have a balanced chain. It also has accuracy in its forecasts and better visibility and efficiency in its overall chain. In summary, the IT implementation in various business operations gave number of competitive advantages and benefits to IKEA. Today the company has improved its overall operations in the market and runs the company with a better and global view. These IT initiatives gave the company long-run significant competitive advantages in the market that will contribute to improved profits. 5.3 Lessons learned from IKEAs IT applications IT systems became the heart of IKEA operations and it plays an important role in alleviating pressure points in its business transactions. On the other hand, those companies who do not manage their IT systems effectively it becomes a problem rather than solution, especially when a retail industry player has to deal with advanced planning and scheduling systems, merchandizing and inventory management systems. However, these systems play crucial role in retail operations and when the company uses it effectively, it can improve efficiency and increase revenues. In IKEAs example we learn that the company matched its IT systems to its existing culture and found success in its initiatives. Their objective was not to create a sophisticated systems but systems that could promptly respond to the employees, suppliers and customers specific needs. One of the success factors that have to be taken into consideration was that IKEA did not compromise its corporate culture by using information technologies. The company was aware that these systems exist to support people and not the technologies. They understood that those tools should not have negative impacts on healthy and powerful organizational culture as these tools are not capable to replace the nuances of the human experience. Another important aspect that has to be taken into consideration is the change management in IKEA, when implementing new IT projects. Most of the IT systems integrated by IKEA have been implemented successfully as the company spent money and efforts to support workers to adapt to methods and tools by creating awareness and interest among the employees, trying out the solutions and adapting to the change. 6. Conclusion Undoubtedly, effective use of modern IT can be seen as a requirement to succeed in the markets. Information technology secures the efficient information flow needed to develop and support a growing IKEA. IT has the ability to support a global organization such as IKEA with business solutions and services that keep the company running and to develop the way the company does business by supply quick, lean and user-friendly IT services rather than just technology. IT offers countless opportunities to simplify, streamline and improve every aspect of IKEA operations. Most of the specialized jobs and projects are based in the IKEA IT centers, but IT support functions are needed in all parts of the company. Historically, IKEA has developed many of its own IT-solutions and stands as a model for various businesses worldwide. In the future, considering the globalization, internets expansion and technological growth, the role of IT will be even more critical. Given that IKEAs personnel has been proved through the companys long history as a solution-oriented and creative organization with a genuine interest in the overall success of IKEA as a home furnishings company, the future of IKEA is even promising with its IT systems to be the shortcut to success. 7. References Ward T., Sales intranet case study: IKEAin http://intranetblog.blogware.com/blog/_archives/2009/4/14/4153375.html Paul Chin, 2009. Inside IKEA Ã¢â¬Ës human intranet approach at http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/200908/ij_08_21_09a.html . Baraldi E. , Waluszewski A. 2002. Information technology at IKEA: an Ã¢â¬Å"open sesameÃ¢â¬ solution or just another type of facility? In http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL_udi=B6V7S-4C7VXV7-3_user=10_coverDate=09%2F30%2F2005_rdoc=1_fmt=high_orig=search_sort=d_docanchor=view=c_searchStrId=1206222647_rerunOrigin=google_acct=C000050221_version=1_urlVersion=0_userid=10md5=101bf0153f4fccb85d75fc95846140f2 The table was extracted from Jonsson P., Rudberg M. , Holmberg S. Global supply chain planning at IKEA in http://www.plan.se/files/Jonsson_Rudberg_Holmberg_08.pdf
Monday, August 19, 2019
William ShakespeareÃâs Othello uses different and unique techniques in his language to express the nature of evil throughout the play. Verbal twists and the characters most importantly stress the act of evil. Iago, most of all is portrayed as the ÃâvillainÃâ or Ãâprotagonist in the play. Shakespeare uses this character to set the basis of evil. Each plot point is spiraled further into tragedy due to the nature of Iago and his manipulative language towards the other main characters. Corruption overcomes the Venetian society as Iago uses his crafty skills of deceit. The plan to have Othello turn against the ones he loves is the perfect example of evilÃâs nature. The power struggle is evident between these two. This situation is the start to IagoÃâs plan to corrupt the society and take OthelloÃâs place. The root of IagoÃâs ÃâevilÃâ is jealousy indeed, in turn changing into a power hungry manipulator. Iago is tired of acting like one "courteous and knee-crooking knave" like he always appears to be [I. i. 46]. Since Iago is reluctant to choose to be a master, he is the servant that bites off the fame and "keep yet their hearts attending on themselves," still showing his service to his master but instead is more self-preserving with no attachments at all towards the master [I. i. 52]. Irony is used diligently in ShakespeareÃâs unique language style. Referred by Othello as Ãâhonest IagoÃâ, the irony is very evident in this title. Iago is everything but honest but this proves how easily led and manipulated Othello is. The traits Iago possess are unexpected to a normal villain. He comes across as charming and smart, he can also be referred to a wolf in sheepÃâs clothing. For example, he knows Roderigo is in love with Desdemona and figures that he ... ...or a most attractive, popular, good-natured, charming, selfish, cold-blooded and utterly unscrupulous scoundrel.Ãâ (pp. 333-34) [Grant: Studies in Shakespeare, Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1886, pp. 205] This excerpt further explains IagoÃâs nature being exactly how Shakespeare intended yet a little different than what the average reader would think of him. The nature of evil is strictly evident as the play comes to an end, yet it is viewed as an opinion or a theory whether Iago is truly Ãâevil.Ãâ Ironically, IagoÃâs words speak louder than his actions, proving how legitimate ShakespeareÃâs use of language for the character was. This dynamic use of language is significant because it can alter the thought of the reader whether Iago was truly evil or just using military tactics to better him. Iago and his use of language set the main plot for every characters outcome.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Jacobson v. United States Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Supreme Court of the United States Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1992. 503 U.S. 540, 112 S.Ct. 1535. FACTS= On September 24, 1987, Keith Jacobson was indicted on charges of violating a provision of the Child Protection Act of 1984, which criminalizes the knowing receipt through mail of a Ã¢â¬Å"visual depiction [that] involves the use of minors engaging in sexually explicit conduct.Ã¢â¬ On Feb 1984 Jacobson ordered two magazines in the mail of young boys. The magazines entitled Bare Boys 1 and Bare Boys 2, contained material of nude young boys from preteen to teens. Jacobson claimed that he want to order material of 18 year olds and up. However JacobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s receipt of the magazines was legal under both federal and Nebraska laws. Laws were constructed three months after the order was filled that banned all sexual depictions of children. Soon after the Gov. started setting up Jacobson by sending him applications to phony organizations that were illegally based. PROCEDURAL HISTORY= This was brought to the state court were Jacobson was found guilty and then after exhausting the state level he appealed to supreme court of the United States. ISSUE= The issue involving this case is during the time Jacobson purchased the magazines they were legal. The government directed Jacobson into many different phony organizations to trap him into guilt. The jury must decide whether Mr. Jacobson willingly participated in illegal activities or was just involved by being duped by the government. HOLDING= The government showed that the defendant was predisposed to engage in illegal conduct. He received the photos, and was predisposed to willingly break the law to do so. He was found guilty because they do not have to show that he intended to break the law only that he received illegal material of minors.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
In 1165, a child was born in the heart of Asia. It is said that when he was born, he was clutching a blood clot-a sign from Heaven that he was destined to be a great warrior. His name is Genghis Khan, meaning Ã¢â¬Å"Universal RulerÃ¢â¬ . The word Khan is not a name, but a title. It means emperor or king. This word had been used by different tribes or nations in various forms in central Asia. Genghis Khan is the most greatest among those Khans.(Abbott, 1902) His life was about to become a legend in human history. Many people believe that his story is full of butchering people and some scholars even compared him to Hitler. The real character of Genghis Khan, however, is far more intriguing. How did this illiterate outcast turn the feuding tribes of Mongolia into a powerful nation? And how did he transform the Mongol hordes into a ruthless and disciplined fighting machine? Snapshot of Genghis Khan Genghis Khan was born with the name of Temujin in 1165 on the banks of the river Onon. When he was 9 years old, he met his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, poisoned by Tatars, who were the dominant tribe in eastern Mongolia at that time. None of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s followers want to be led by a 9 years old boy, but neither did they want to kill Temujin for fear of starting a feud with his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s relatives. His fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s followers left Temujin and his mother by the clan, who are afraid of him succeeding to his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s position. After that, Temujin began survival. He became the youth who fought for survival of him and his mother, abandoned by his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s followers after the murder of his father. (Historic World Leaders, 1994) When he was 14, he was taken prisoners by the TaichiÃ¢â¬â¢uts. However, he escaped successfully. Then he soon married to his first wife, Borte. Unluckily, his wife was later captured by his enemy. He then united Jamuka, who is his blood brother, and Toghrill to rescue his wife. But after this rescue, the gap between Temujin and his blood brother was becoming more and more large because both he and Jamuka are persons who are eager to be the leader of clan. They both want to be the Khan who can unite the Mongol. They cannot stand to become the leader assistance. In 1185, he Mongol princes acclaimed Temujin as their ruler. After that, he experienced tremendous setbacks and overcame. (Historic World Leaders, 1994) In 1206, Temujin united all the tribes in Mongol, he was proclaimed to the emperor of all Mongols, and given the title Genghis Khan, which means Ã¢â¬ Universal MonarchÃ¢â¬ . After that, Genghis Khan began his conquering to Asia and Europe. During the followed two decades, Genghis Khan would lay the foundations for the largest empire ever known. (Xu, 2002) In 1213, the Mongolian crossed the Great Wall, spreading out to northern part of China. Genghis KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s army sacked Beijing in 1215. In 1219, He began his bloody slaughters, moving westward. In 1227, it is said that he died because the internal injury suffered after falling from his horse. At that time, the land he conquered was from the borders of Turkey to Russia to northern India to China.(Schlager and Lauer, 2001) However, it is undeniable that Genghis Khan is a slaughter when he was conquering. It is said that every time his army conquered a city, they would kill all the men whose height is over the height of wheel and put all the women, elderly, and children into slavery. There is a statistics states that the Mongolian army led by Genghis Khan killed 30 million people in China, 200 million people in total including Asia and Europe. In 1122, there are 93.47 million people in China. However, in 1274, when the Yuan dynasty was established by Genghis KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s descendants, there were only 8.87 million people in China. () There was once a rumor, which proved to be not real, said he killed 1,748,000 people in one hour. (Qing, 2011) Leadership Traits Genghis Khan has a majority of leadership traits, which does not change as him moves from situation to situation. I will analyze three aspects traits of Genghis Khan, which are physical or background traits, personality of ability traits, and task or social traits. Physical and background trait From the perspectives of physical and background trait, he is always being an energetic person. He spent his whole life on integrating different tribes in Mongolia and conquering lands as large as possible. When he died, his emperor controlled a region that stretched from the borders of Turkey to China to Russia to northern India. However, he is illiterate all his life, not ever educated. Personality or ability trait From the perspective of personality or ability traits, Genghis Khan is the person who has a unique personality and charisma. He is a very creative person. The nomadic tribe was a backward tribe at that time. The weapons they mainly used are bow-and-arrow and sword. Genghis Khan developed different kind of technology during the conquest. He invented central Asian compound bow, which had the same power as to the European crossbow. He combined powder to the arrow, which did a great contribution to destroy the heavy European armour. Also, He invented the Mongol military tactics and organization helped the Mongol Emperor to conquer nearly all of continental Asia, the Middle East and parts of eastern Europe. In many ways, it can be regarded as the first Ã¢â¬Å"modernÃ¢â¬ military system. (May, 2007) He is self-confidence, but not ego. He did not need any comments on his self-confidence because when one third of the world is under your control, you did not lack for self-confidence. As a tactician and strategist, he was initiative and superb at seizing opportunities. He was also flexible in adapting to change situations. Genghis Khan once saw the new needs of his policy he had created, he responded. Social trait From the perspective of social traits, he is famous for cooperating with his followers to come up with the strategy or new inventions. His inspirational leadership made his followers loyal to him. Genghis Khan has excellent organizational skills and he is talented in sociability. He is a disciplined person, same as his army. Because of his organizational an strategic skills, he created one of the most highly effective armies in history, he was given birth to administrate this army. (May, 2003) Leadership Behavior A good leader is someone who does not make plans for the group, but to influence the group members toward the achievement of group goals in which the members view the influence as legitimate. A good leader is not only organizing the group, but to unite the group members to generate great effectiveness. Throughout Genghis KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s life, he used several leadership behaviors to influence his followers. Directive Leadership Behavior Genghis Khan has a vision that defines and articulates clearly where he wants to go. He sets goals for followers, planning and coordinating followersÃ¢â¬â¢ work. As a commander and a statesman, he is always far-sighted strategic thinking. For example, Genghis KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate goal is to conquer the central part of China. However, after establishing his own regime in eastern Mongolia, contrary to expectations, he did not to attack the Jin Dynasty, which took over the northern part of China during that time by Jurchen people. Because he knew that even if he could win in the beginning, he would be attacked by other tribes in the middle west of the Mongolia. So, he did not attempt a direct attack on northern China, but to desire to concentrate on integrating Mongolia.(Qing, 2011) Charismatic Leadership Behavior I think the own charismas of Genghis Khan is the key reason why he could become success. Genghis Khan has a unique personality and charisma. It has been remarked that one of Genghis KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest assets was his personal charisma, what R. P. Lister called Ã¢â¬Å"the power to arouse exaltation in his followers, so that they are no longer moved entirely by thoughts of self-preservation, but become slightly mad.Ã¢â¬ (Historic World Leaders, 2011)It is surprised that all his comrades showed long time loyalty to him, no one ever betray him. He never doubt about his comradesÃ¢â¬â¢ loyalty. After every time success, he always awarded his ministers. He never killed them in order to gain more power, but to assign the power to his ministers. Leader Reward and Punishment Behavior One of the obvious leadership behaviors of Genghis Khan is that he reward success. He advocated that if they defeated the enemy, everyone should be assigned spoils. He always rewards those people who have done great contribution to success. He punished those people who disobey his law or rules. Every followers need to clear his rules, and rigorously obeyed. For example, if a soldier deserted his troop, he was executed. If a soldier failed to stop to help a fellow warrior whose baggage fell from his horse, he was executed. If two or more members of a troop made a great advance, but were not supported by their comrades, the latter were executed. (Man, 2009) Participative Leadership Behavior Unlike other rulers, Genghis Khan involved in conquest every time. He spend all his life on conquering, even to his death. In history, there are few rulers who can participate in the conquest as he did. He is also good at taking counsel from other people. He shows great respect to people who counsel. He always involve followers in the decision-making process. He can always get the right people, and use them well. For example, during his early years conquest, he had simply killed everyone who stood in his way. A former official of the Chinese emperor told Genghis Khan that they could pay him valuable tax money to finance further warfare if he would not continue killing people in the lands they conquered. Genghis Khan accepted this advice. (Schlager and Lauer, 2001) Genghis KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s Leadership Behavior in Hospitality Industry As a ruler of the empire which had the largest territory in the world ever. Genghis KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest assets was his personal charisma. How can I use Genghis KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership traits and behaviors for my career in hospitality industry? Can his leadership traits and leadership behaviors be used in hospitality industry? In the following paragraph, I will mainly analyze on how to apply his charismatic leadership behavior and his leader reward and punishment behavior in hospitality industry. There are mainly three attributions of Genghis khanÃ¢â¬â¢s charismatic behavior have strong influence on his followerÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes, behaviors, and values. First, Get a Vision. In hospitality industry, even the same as the other industry, it is a great deal for a leader to have a vision. Genghis Khan has a great vision ability, he always clear what to do next. When Genghis Khan began to conquer the Mongol, he had a vision that unity could defeat any singles. In the end, his tribal unity threatened all his rivals. With time going on, his vision is becoming larger and larger: unite nation, build up an empire, even conquer the world. (Encyclopedia of World Biography, 1998) The general manager, as a leader in a hotel, needs to have a right vision and influence followers to dream it up. A general manager of a hotel should analyze the hotel objective, and then have a vision that what this hotel needs most at this time. A hotel general manager should have a vision by considering questions like these: How to use the efficient administration to ascend the RevPar? What kind of marketing strategy does the hotel need to have under the specific circumstances? Do customers enjoy our services? What is the relevance stuff between the needs of employees and the needs of the hotel. A hotel general manager should also have the vision changed with situation goes on. Second, employ the best, use the right person. One of the most charismatic traits of Genghis Khan is that he is brilliant in using people, no matter who they are. For example, he once found one of his prisoners, who has the administrative skills he lacked, but needed. His companions are people from different places, including Mongolian, Jurchen, Chinese, Jin etc..Choosing the right man, Mongol or non-Mongol, was one of GenghisÃ¢â¬â¢s supreme talents. (Shelton, 2005) However, in nowadays world, so many leaders do not like the people who are better than them because they are seen not as an asset but a threat. In hospitality industry, since the service is intangible, perishable, inseparate, and variable. Customers valued the hotel not only from the scales, but also the service. It is very essential for a leader in hospitality industry to use the right person in different positions to expand the profits. Employ good employees is only the first step for a manger to go, the more significant is to use employees well. Moreover, the turnover rate in hospitality industry is usually very high, employees always change jobs because of not satisfy with their jobs. Employees would not make commitments to employers if managers do not treat the relations with employees well. Managers should recognize that every employees need to be satisfied with their basic demands, which are not the money, honors, or high-positions, but to discover their own value. Third, perseverance. During Genghis KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood, he risked for survival. When he was grown up, he kept on conquering till the last day of his life. Genghis Khan focus on one purpose in his life, which is to see his enemies brought to justice. He insisted on achieving this purpose all his life. He was never distracted by a desire for possessions or wealth as he became more powerful. In nowadays hospitality industry, perseverance also plays a significant role to a leader. In China, hospitality industry is a fast developing industry in recent years. Those international hotel brands, such as, Marriott, Hilton, and Carlson, are increasing star-scale hotels in China every year. Though there are a majority of opportunities in this industry, a lot of people choose to leave this industry but contribute to other industry, such as, finance or accounting. As a hotel leader, or even the employees in basic unit, persistence in hospitality industry can make you success. Because there are more opportunities in this industry than others. For example, the finance industry is almost saturated, it is very hard to move forward in this kind of industry. In China, a hospitality major student may start a basic salary, which is usually lower than other industry, in a hotel. However, this industry is having a lot of opportunities and less risky. In the same uncertainty situation, choose less risky industry would bring more return. So, it is necessary for a hotel manager to hold on consistently and persistently in this industry. Genghis KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s leader directive behavior can be applied well in hospitality industry. Genghis Khan has a great vision of what he and his Mongol hordes need to do. Genghis Khan made clear and firm rules for his hordes. Everyone has to obey the rule, even the royal family. This is also a significant step in establishing Genghis KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s hold over all the people and aligning them in support of his expansionist policies. He distributed different work to his followers and all of his followers made great commitments in return. In hospitality industry, the reason of some of the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ bad performance of services is that they are nor clear for their goals or not clear about the rules. At this time, a directive leader is certainly needed to pursuit followers, make a task-oriented, and specify rules. Also, Leader reward and punishment behavior is needed in hospitality industry. Hotel managers or supervisors should clear about the merits and achievements of their followers. They can build up a salary system to reward and make theLeaders should distribute fairly to followers so that followers will follow them loyally. Conclusion Genghis Khan was not only a ruler, but a unifier. Because of his conquest, he build up his empire stretching from Korea to Western Russia in the north and from Burma to Iraq in the south, opening up the road from eastern world to western world. Even, he made the foundation of the Eurasian history. Due to Genghis khan, the travel between East and West became relatively safe, which had not been exist for a very long period. However, he was also know as a harsh and mercilessly conqueror in history. In terms of leadership, Genghis Khan is a charismatic leader. He was exactly clear of his purpose, having a great vision, and insisting on that. He was humble, accepting criticism. He has a great ability of using the right people. His strategic and organizational skills created one of the most highly disciplined armies in history. Even in the hospitality industry, his leadership behaviors and traits can also be applied, and have contributions to it. People could learn from him in order to gai n the benefits in their career.
Reaction Paper SAB 110-02 I first attended AA meetings as a requirement while I was in outpatient treatment in 2002. So when I learned that I had to go for a class assignment, I thought I would be comfortable attending a meeting. I was going with the intent on just sitting in the back and listening. The meetings that I had gone to in the past were held at the treatment center where I was seeking help. For this assignment, I went to a group meeting at a prominent church in south Charlotte. Once inside I was greeted with lots of hugs and handshakes, this is when my plan changed. I was asked if this was my first time attending a meeting with every other introduction. All of the feelings of being nervous I had years ago from going to my first meeting, started coming back on me. This was a large group of middle age men and women, with little or no diversity within the group. The meeting began with the reading of the 12 steps, the 12 traditions followed by the Serenity Prayer. After the readings, one thing that surprised me was how the large group divided up into three different groups. One group for women, an open group for beginners, and a closed meeting for men, I stayed in the closed meeting. The topic of discussion on this night was on recovery and service. While I was listening to people talk about how long they had been in recovery, and how attending meetings several times a week for many years had kept them sober. Others spoke about how they do service work. One gentleman talked about being in recovery and that he felt they were only able to remain sober because they became active in service and helping others. I got involved in the discussion and stated that this was my first time in a meeting in nine years. I felt like the next few people to speak was a direct response to what I had said, it made me feel uncomfortable. I was active in service and unity during my first few years in recovery, but I personally believe that a person should not have to be in recovery for the rest of their life once they become sober. AA works very well for some people, and a lot of people either find it ineffective, or they turned off by it. I respect the opinions and perceptions of those that do. Recovery is not something that you can force on someone. What works one individual made not do the same for someone else. The next meeting I attended was a NA meeting. This was the first time that I had been to a meeting, but I was not nervous attending a meeting. The meeting was held at a different church, but in the same area of the AA meeting. I was quite surprised when I went inside. There was a wide range of diversity in this meeting, as it relates to age, socioeconomic background, profession, educational level, and gender. One thing that was caught my attention was the number of high school age people who were there. The meeting began much like the AA meeting did with the reading of the steps, traditions and the serenity prayer. This was an open discussion meeting. There were two teenagers who were there together, who talked about using the day before. One of them mentioned that they were jealous of their friends at school. The reason she gave was that how her friends could use drugs and maintain self control, but she was the one to lose it. There were a few things in this NA meeting that I learned. First was, when discussing your drug usage or your drug of choice you don`t mention the name of the drug. It was also stated to keep the conversations about narcotics and not alcohol, which surprised me, being that this was my first NA a meeting, I have talked and listened to addicts and recovering addicts many times before but sitting in on a meeting touched me differently. I felt more comfortable attending the AA meeting, mainly because I had been to some in the past. Also the NA meeting did not seem to be as organized as the AA meeting. People would get up and walk out to smoke while someone was talking. Another distraction that took away from the meeting were people talking about other topics other than addiction. Overall the meeting was informative and the people were very nice and like a close knit family. I choose to attend an Al-non meeting, and I enjoyed this experience the best. I did not know what to expect going in, but was put at ease from the kindness shown by the people. This was an opening meeting and open discussion. This group was made up of mostly middle age upper class females, with one couple. They started the meeting with some group business and announcements, after that I thought I was in a AA meeting, The topic was on the holidays and how to cope. When people talked about being in recovery, they were speaking about themselves. I did join in on the discussion and stayed a few minutes after the meeting to ask some questions about the group. I could see myself going back to Al-non for support if I had issues with or was affected by a friend or family member drinking. I got some very good insight and information from all three meeting, but the Al-non seemed to be the one that was the most sincere. Unlike at other meetings for addicts themselves, the 12 steps in this meeting did not seem to take top priority, but rather the group help seemed most important to Al-non. They closed the meeting with the Lord prayer and invited me to come back.